The article below includes excerpts from my books, Essential Oils for Mindfulness and Meditation, released Autumn 2018, and my new book, Essential Oils from Plant to Bottle, to be released Autumn 2021 by Inner Traditions, Bear & Co.




Notes from my presentation (19th September 2019)


The stillest point of a seesaw is at its pivoting center.

Meditation is the act of returning our consciousness to  the    stillness    at    the    center    of    our    being.

Simply, meditation is conscious awareness of being. It is the vessel of focus, but not the experience; like the cup that draws water from the depths of the well. The ‘water’, moment consciousness, held in the cup of meditation is the experience of ‘being’ in the moment.

The techniques we apply to bring our consciousness to the moment, such as following the rhythm of our breathing, listening to a sound, or visually focusing on an object, even a taste, draw us into moment awareness, so we are present, (in the rich fullness of) here and now. Our life unfolds one moment at a time. The past and future are memory or imagination.  The moment is our gateway.

Beyond words. Parables and metaphors, images, music, art in its many forms, are employed to express, from the depths of the inner well of holistic experience and understanding, a wordless sense of all that is.

So, what about essential oils?

It is at the juncture between material and ethereal that we find essential oils: one of the manifold gifts of nature.

The qualities of essential oils are diverse, and like most things from natural origin, their chemistry is complex; numerous components balance, counterbalance and support each other within their mixture to create a potent synergy, with qualities that range from anti-microbial to euphoric.

They are adaptogenic, protective, and restorative.

They are anti-microbial, skin and tissue healing, they ease digestive disorders, and procure significant psycho-emotional-spiritual qualities.

We share a symbiotic and mutualistic relationship with plants, other creatures and microorganisms. Edible plants, at one and the same time, provide food and medicine, so are nourishing and healing. Their chemistry supports our chemistry. We breathe together.

Not all plants are safe to consume, however.  Some are toxic and fatally poisonous to us. Yet there are certain medicines derived from chemicals found within certain toxic plants. Historically, such plants were prescribed and administered by a medicine man or woman, Shaman or physician; although many are lethal, applied in controlled quantity, some of these plants induce altered states of consciousness and ‘insight’.

Thus, plants fall into different categories when considering their properties, actions, and medicinal and healing properties.

Plants historically employed for their healing properties include, among many others, aniseed, dill, fennel, frankincense, ginger, peppermint and other herbs, rose, and sandalwood.

Euphoric inducing plants include, among others, (from strong to mild, and used in moderate dose), cannabis, coca, kava, poppy seed, sage (Salvia divinorum), benzoin, clary sage, frankincense, nutmeg, and thyme linolool.

Psychoactive inducing plants, and fungi, include, among others, belladonna, deadly nightshade, henbane, mandrake, and fly agaric mushrooms, and high doses of cannabis, coca, kava, poppy seed, nutmeg, sage (Salvia divinorum), and valerian.

You will notice some essential oil bearing plants among these; for example, benzoin, clary sage, frankincense, nutmeg, thyme linolool, and valarian.  The chemical composition of essential oils, though, alters in composition when they are separated from the whole plant; extracted essential oils comprise only of volatile organic components.

Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young confirm, in their book Essential Oils Safety (2014), there are virtually no psychoactive essential oils.  Nutmeg essential oil, even when consumed internally in high dose, they assure us, is not psychoactive.  They do, however, remind us that nutmeg essential oil, when consumed in high quantity, may procure a euphoric effect, with potential unpleasant side effects, such as, headaches, feelings of nausea and a sense of ‘distance’ and unreality.  Clary sage essential oil, another example of a euphoric essential oil, may be unpleasantly potentiated when mixed with alcohol.

What are essential oils?

When extracted from plant material, the composition of an essential oil alters.  Once extracted from the mother plant, the essential oil becomes an entity unto itself.  A product of extraction, essential oils are very concentrated mixtures of mostly volatile hydrophobic terpene and terpenoid phyto-chemicals.

Some components are lost during the extraction process, due to their high or low boiling point.  Some alter during distillation.  For example, matricin degrades to form a new molecule, not present within the plant, Chamazulene (found for example in German Chamomile and Yarrow essential oil) – C02 extracted chamomile German does not create chamazulene and is non-coloured.

To place the concentration of essential oils into perspective:

2,500 to 4,000 kg (5,511 to 8,818 pounds) of rose petals will yield 1 kg (2.2 pounds) of essential oil.

1.4 kg (3lbs) of fresh lavender will yield 15ml (or approximately 300 drops) of lavender essential oil.

One drop of essential oil is equivalent to 15-40 cups of medicinal tea, or up to 10 teaspoons of tincture (Krumbeck 2014).  

One drop of peppermint essential oil is equivalent to 26 cups of peppermint tea.  

By comparison, the quantity of essential oil found in individual plants is minute; the amount of essential oil consumed when eating herbs or making herb tea is very small.

So, a 10ml bottle of essential oil is in fact very potent and needs to be treated accordingly; that is, applied with careful consideration and in moderation.

NB: Essential oils prescribed for internal ingestion by a medically trained healthcare professional, pharmacist, or herbalist (and this is the only context in which oral or rectal ingestion of essential oils should be administered), are always interfused with a fixed vegetable oil and suspended in plant-based (hypromellose) or gelatin (collagen from animal skin or bones) capsules (the former being preferable), and are only administered following a thorough consultation ‘work up’; thus, dose is controlled, safe, and appropriate.


Historical application of essential oils

Herbs, and other essential oil bearing plants, have been applied as medicinal remedies throughout the ages, in the form of skin healing and antiseptic ointments and balms, environmental sanitisers, and as perfumes:

  • to stave off infections and disease,
  • to alleviate digestive disorders,
  • and, for their psycho-emotional-spiritual calming, uplifting, grounding, invigorating and euphoric qualities.

Lyme Regis, Dorset, Devon, Jurassic Coast, Health and Wellbeing, Aromantique, aromatherapy, carer’s, caring, charity, community, essential oils, Essential Oils for Mindfulness and Essential Oils, federation of holistic therapists, gifts of nature, giving, health, international federation of aromatherapists, organic essential oils, sharing, support, Wellbeing, wellness, anti depression, anti-anxiety, antiseptic, balancing, flu, geranium essential oil, perfume, skin care, sore throatEssential oils were mainly extracted by soaking plant material in water, animal fat or oil (such as olive oil).

When plant material is macerated in boiling water to create teas, tinctures and tonics, or when it is soaked in animal fat, vegetable oil, or distilled water, the volatile essential oils (along with other volatile and non-volatile phytochemical compounds, for example, flavonoids, chlorophyll, and carotene) are coaxed from their cells and cavities through osmosis, through breakdown of oil-containing cell walls, or simply by being flushed or washed out of cavities.  Essential oil molecules thus disperse into and permeate the steeping medium.

Macerated oils, due to the presence of flavonoids and chlorophyll, are often richly coloured (orange, yellow, red, green) ; for example, arnica, carrot, and marigold (calendula).

Mary Magdalene famously anointed Jesus’s feet with perfumed oil of spikenard (or nard) – likely created by steeping the crushed roots of this plant in warm olive oil. This oil was imported from Asia (India) and was highly prized amongst the wealthy.

Incense derived from resins, such as frankincense, myrrh, galbanum, and from woods and bark, such as cedarwood, sandalwood, cinnamon and cassia, were, and still are, employed in social and religious ceremonies, rites of passage, and rituals.

Dried herbs, among them sage, rosemary, and thyme, were and still are ‘smoked’ or ‘smudged’ into the atmosphere to fumigate, stave the spread of disease, and dispel negative ‘spirits’ (or energies).

In deed, there are numerous references made in historical scriptures and medicinal canons citing the use of essences of woods, resins, herbs, and spices for their hedonistic, medicinal, and spiritual qualities. For example, in the Bible, we find:

The dried resinous exudes of:

Balm of Gilead – a balsam tree, or shrub found historically in Jordon (original biblical origin is uncertain – contenders include: Mastic, Terebinth, Pine, among others).

Lyme Regis, Dorset, Devon, Jurassic Coast, Health and Wellbeing, Aromantique, aromatherapy, carer’s, caring, charity, community, essential oils, Essential Oils for Mindfulness and Essential Oils, federation of holistic therapists, gifts of nature, giving, health, international federation of aromatherapists, organic essential oils, sharing, support, Wellbeing, wellness, anti depression, anti-anxiety, antiseptic, balancing, flu, geranium essential oil, perfume, skin care, sore throatFrankincense (Boswellia) – a small tree, or shrub found historically in Oman, Yemen and the Horn of Africa, including Somalia and Ethiopia

Myrrh (Comiphora) – a small thorny tree, or shrub found historically in North Africa and the Middle East

Benzoin styrax (dried white resin) – large shrubs or small trees found historically found in Sumatra, Indonesia.

Galbanum (white resin, drying to yellow to brown) – hollow stemmed plant found historically in Iran (Persia)

Labdanum (Cistus) – raw resin obtained from boiling leaves and twigs (historically collected from goats beards and sheeps wool – resin attached to fir during grazing from the cistus shrubs) obtained from small Cistus creticus and species of rockrose shrubs found historically in Mediterranean regions.

The roots of:

Calamus (Sweet Flag) – tall wetland (grows at edges of ponds, small lakes, rivers, marshes, swamps and wetlands) flowering plant historically found in India, Asia, Southern Russia, and Central Europe.

Spikenard (Nard) – flowering plant belonging to the valerian family historically found growing in wood in Nepal (Himalayas), China, and India – obtained as a luxury in ancient Egypt, Western Asia and Turkey.

The bark of:

Cassia – an evergreen tree found historically in China, but cultivated in India and other southern and eastern Asian countries

Cinnamon – an evergreen ‘thick-barked’ tree historically found in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. Highly prized by the ancient, and imported to Egypt over 2,000 years ago.  

The needles, leaves, roots, wood and bark of:

Cedarwood – a coniferous tree historically found in the northern and western mountains of the Middle East and known as Cedar of Lebanon. Species are diverse, ranging across various botanical families, including Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, and Meliaceae

The heart-wood (sawdust and chippings):

Sandalwood (possible cross reference with aloewood, oud, oodh, and agar – oud is a wood-like dark and fragrant resinous substance produced by the agar tree in reaction to parasitic mold infestation).   A small heavy tropical tree historically found in South-east Asia, now cultivated in Northern Australia, India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippenes.

Santalum album is endangered due to over harvesting. It takes years before the tree produces the essential oil. Santalum spicatum is grown and cultivated in Australia and is now the Sandalwood of ecological choice.

Modern use and application of essential oils

Although traditional and herbal medicine is still applied in many parts of the developing world, essential oils are mainly (95%) produced and consumed by the food, flavour, perfume, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry.

Apparently, the top ranking essential oils used by these industries include, by highest quantity (between 12,000 and 1,300 tonnes):

Sweet orange

Mentha arvensis (Corn mint)





Litsea cubeba (May chang)

Clove leaf



How do essential oils work as companions of meditation?

According to Kim et al’s 2016 systematic review of published research on the Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity:

Lyme Regis, Dorset, Devon, Jurassic Coast, Health and Wellbeing, Aromantique, aromatherapy, carer’s, caring, charity, community, essential oils, Essential Oils for Mindfulness and Essential Oils, federation of holistic therapists, gifts of nature, giving, health, international federation of aromatherapists, organic essential oils, sharing, support, Wellbeing, wellness, anti depression, anti-anxiety, antiseptic, balancing, flu, geranium essential oil, perfume, skin care, sore throatInhalation of fragrances has significant effect on brain function due to the ability of fragrance compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier and interact with receptors in the central nervous system; olfactory stimulation of fragrances produces immediate changes in physiological parameters such as blood pressure, muscle tension, pupil dilation, skin temperature, pulse rate and brain activity.

Concluding, they confirm that fragrances directly and/or indirectly affect the psychological and physiological conditions of humans; that fragrances significantly modulate the activities of different brain waves and are responsible for various states of the brain (EEG testing); and that a number of studies scientifically support the beneficial use of various aromatic plants in aromatherapy.

In another study exploring the effect of mindfulness meditation and the psycho-emotional influence of essential oils, Garcia et al (Soto-Vásquez & Alvarado-García 2017) found that, when combined, meditation and essential oils act synergistically to significantly reduce levels of anxiety.

The essential oils applied (Satureja brevicalyx and Satureja boliviana – plants native to Peru) in this study contain a high content of linalool, a phyto-chemical attributed with being ‘uplifting’, among other qualities, which they suggest attributed to the outcome.

They conclude that other essential oils containing linalool may potentially produce a similar effect and suggest, as an example, a blend of Ho wood, geranium and peppermint (peppermint does not contain linalool but in combination these oils create a similar chemical ‘fingerprint’ to the Peruvian oils).

Basil (linalool CT), lavender, neroli and petitgrain also contain high levels of linalool.

Other oils and resins that may support mediation include frankincense, myrrh, patchouli, rose, rosemary, spikenard and vetivert.

For example, Frankincense and patchouli slow and deepen breathing, instilling a sense of peace.  Lavender and geranium balance and calm emotion.  Rosemary aids memory and concentration. Vetivert is ‘grounding’.

Odour detection draws the perceivers’ awareness to their breathing, to the moment.

“Perfume and incense bring joy to the heart”. Proverbs 27:9

Qualities of essential oils that support meditation

  • Balancing to the nervous system (activate a parasympathetic response)
  • Calming
  • Clear the sinuses and aid ease of breathing
  • Concentration – aids
  • Grounding / Earthing
  • Focus – aids
  • Sedative
  • Racing mind, thoughts – stills
  • Wakefulness – aids


As a very general guide when applying the qualities of essential oils:

Woods and flowers / blossoms in combination are balancing and uplifting

Woods aid breathing.

Resins and roots are grounding, or ‘earthing’

Spices and citrus oils are stimulating, wakening, and brightening

Herbs are balancing; some are more stimulating (rosemary for example), some more relaxing (Marjoram for example), some are both, such as, lavender and patchouli.

The qualities of essential oils are numerous; their scents draw our consciousness into the present moment; they influence our mood and aid concentration; they protect, restore, and revitalise body and soul….gifts of nature to accompany our journey through life and time.