Staying safe, well and resilient

Because COVID 19 is a novel virus, no one yet knows what will work as a combatant: whether a single panacea or multiple strategies. Vaccines are being developed, but it will take some time to appropriately test these and ensure they are safe (there is some controversy surrounding the hasty development of a vaccine for COVID19, especially as vaccines for other corona viruses have proved impossible to create).  Meanwhile, tried and tested natural remedies are being trialled as methods to manage the symptoms of the virus, and to boost the immune systems ability to stave the virus naturally.  For example, vitamin C has been applied in Wuhan and New York hospitals, and demonstrates some supportive success (Zuo 2020, Hemila 2003); high doses of vitamin C modify susceptibility to various bacterial and virus infections. Vitamin D3 offers yet another avenue of potential support; vitamin D regenerates endothelial lining in blood vessels and is shown to minimise alveolar damage (Kakodkar et al 2020).  Also, there is vitamin B3, which is highly lung protective and could be used at the onset of coughing (Shi et al 2020), Zinc, which reduces inflammation and boosts the immune system, and vitamin A, which helps the lungs, heart, and kidneys, and other organs, function properly (Ayyadurai 2020)

How we help ourselves

The human micro biome, just like a plants micro biome, consists of trillions of microbes, including viruses, bacteria and fungi, which symbiotically live in and on the body – on the skin, in the gut, and in cavities such as the mouth, ears and vagina – and within an auric-like cloud surrounding the body. The micro biome plays a significant role in protecting and maintaining immunity, and aids a number of vital bodily functions: for example, assisting the breakdown and synthesis of nutrients in the gut and aiding their appropriate absorption, and providing a protective barrier against invasion or proliferation of harmful microbes and pathogens, and more. We coexist with microorganisms; our body houses, feeds, and depends on their presence to maintain functional equilibrium. Poor diet, sugary refined foods, overuse of antibiotics and pharmaceutical drugs, stress and illness, among other factors, can disrupt the harmonious balance of the micro biome, and thus, increase our susceptibility to pathogenic invasion, disease and dysfunction.

Our first line of defence, when considering immunity, is to support our micro biome’s equilibrium (and thus also our health and vitality through optimum nourishment and resistance): for example, eating nutritionally rich, fresh, seasonal, unrefined, organic whole foods, especially green vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans and other legumes, fermented foods, and so on; drinking plenty of water to hydrate and oxygenate our cells, and flush out waste material from our system; also, fresh air, sunlight (photochemical formation of vitamin D), walking (movement and motion) and gentle exercise (to stimulate peristalsis in the gut, and stimulate the lymphatic system, to remove waste products efficiently from our body). A plants micro biome can also feed ours, hence the advisability of leaving the skin on organic vegetables and fruits, and eating these raw or just lightly cooked.

The boundaries between physical, psychological and emotional (body, mind, and spirit) often overlap. Indeed, feeling happy, relaxed and calm, positive and optimistic demonstrably influences physical function; heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol levels, endorphin release, digestion, and so on. Therefore, our second line of defence, in terms of immunological support and healthy function, is our state of ‘being’ – ‘being in stress’ or ‘being in equanimity’, ‘being in fear’ or ‘being in peace’. Indeed, we are often reminded that unconditional ‘love’ is an optimum state of ‘being’. Our state of ‘being’ influences our state of ‘body’.

Hygiene, of course, is another line of defence. That is cleanliness, soap and water, rather than obsessive sterilisation. Observation of our micro biome, as already established, demonstrates that microbial co-existence is the background reality; far from being harmful, we actually thrive in their presence – our micro biome plays a significant role in fighting invading pathogens; we also develop immunity through coming into contact with microbes. There are times, though, when our defence mechanisms are compromised, through illness, stress, shock, anxiety, poor diet, lack of sufficient sleep, among other reasons, and our resilience weakens, and this is when complementary interventions may be supportive.

Essential oils to strengthen immunity

To combat and manage COVID 19, Shi et al (2020) suggest the immune system should be boosted during the first and second stage of infection, when there is better chance the infection can more easily be contained, but that the immune system should be suppressed during the inflammatory phase; at this stage, oxygen uptake is critical.

NB: Essential oils should definitely NOT be applied during the inflammatory third stage of infection, that is, when infection spreads to the lungs (among other reasons, their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions are superseded by the compromised function of the lungs).

While essential oils should definitely not be used during the third stage of Coronavirus, they might usefully be employed as preventatives, particularly in terms of managing hygiene, and during the very early phases of infection.  However, this is a novel virus, and just as there isn’t an identified specific drug, or vaccine, that might combat the virus, neither is there an essential oil or essential oil component with proven specific effectiveness.

All essential oils possess anti-microbial properties, to some degree.  Some essential oils possess broad-spectrum bactericidal and anti-viral qualities, while others are more specific in their action, depending on the chemical composition of the essential oil and the type of microbe; broad-spectrum in this context does not mean a single essential oil or blend of essential oils will kill all viruses or all bacteria. Essential oils are, however, generally and variously tissue regenerating, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, and mucolytic, among other things.  Blending certain essential oils together can potentiate their strength and increase their range of action.

Essential oils, thus, work well preventatively, staving infection and pathogenic invasion, and are especially useful during the early stages of infection. They support the immune system.  They support hygiene.  They alleviate symptoms, such as those associated with colds and ‘flu; for example, headaches, nasal and sinus congestion, muscle aches, insomnia, depression and anxiety. Unlike conventional antibiotics, essential oils do not disrupt the body’s microbiome.

Essential oils also instigate psycho-emotional responses that may potentially instil a sense of feeling peaceful and calm, uplifted and grounded; optimal states to support efficient function of the immune system.

So, essential oils may aid and support resilience in a number of ways.

Some of the most potent anti-microbial essential oils include: Cinnamon bark and leaf, Clove bud and leaf, Eucalyptus globulus, Pine, Tea Tree and Thyme, among others (these oils must be applied with caution, as they are potential sensitisers and skin and mucous membrane irritants).

However, remember, no matter how valuable they are, essential oils are not ‘cure-alls’, but rather, they are an integrated component that may significantly contribute to holistic health and wellbeing.

See here for advice about applying essential oils safely and effectively:

Essential Oils

Safe Use and Application

Methods of Use

Measuring Essential Oils for Personal Application


Essential Oils for the Whole Body

Essential Oils for Mindfulness and Meditation














  • Almeida, L.F., Paula, J.F., Almeida, R.V., Williams, D.W., Hebling, J., Cavalcanti, Y.W.; Efficacy of citronella and cinnamon essential oil on candida albicans biofilms; Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul: 74(5): p 393-8; PubMed
  • Alves-Silva, J.M., Zuzarte, M., Goncalves, M.J., Cavaleiro, C., Cruz, M. T., Cardoso, S.M., Salqueiro, L.; New Claims for Wild Carrot (Daucus carota carota) Essential Oil; Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016; 2016: 9045196, PubMed
  • Becker, S. PhD (2018) Essential Oils to prevent the spread of flu. Tisserand Institute:
  • Becker, S., PhD RA (2020) Essential Oils and Coronovirus. The Tisserand Institute.
  • Brower, V. (2004) When the Immune System goes on the Attack. EMBO Rep. Science and Society 5(8) p757-760.
  • Garozzo, A., Timpanaro, R., Bisignano, G., Castro, A. (2009) In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil: Society for Applied Microbiology.
  • Kavanaugh, N.L., Riggeck, K., Selected Antimicrobial Essential Oils Eradicate Pseudomonas spp and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms: Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2012 78(11): p 4057-4061, American Society for Microbiology:
  • Kokodkar, P., Kaka, N., Baig, M.  N. (2020) A Comprehensive Literature review on the Clinical Presentation, and Management of the Pandemic Coronovirus Disease 2019 (COVI-19). 12th April, 12(4): e7560.
  • Nunez, L., Aquino, M.D.; Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryphylleta); Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 2012 Oct-Dec; 43(4): p 1255-1260
  • Ooi, L.S., Li, Y., Kam, S.L., Wang, H., Wong, E.Y., Ooi, V.E.; Anti microbial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassie Blume; Am J Chin Med 2006; 34(3): p 511-22.;jsessionid=C5143518B4CE3C82D0E099C3A0C653F4?id=2962
  • Radha G., Chandi, C.R., Dash, S.K., Mishra, R.K.; In vitro antimicrobial potential assessment of carrot and celery seed essential oils against 21 bacteria; Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 2004, vol 7 issue 1 p 79-86
  • Sharifi-Rad, J., Sureda, A., Tenore, G.C., Daglia, M., Sharifi-Rad, M., Valussi, M., Tundis, R., Sharifi-Rad, Ma., Koizzo, M.R., Ademiluyi, A.D., Sharifi-Rad, R., Ayatollahi, S.A., Iriti, M.; Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems: Molecules 2017 Jan; 22(1): 70   Published online 2017 Jan 1.doi: 10.3390/molecules22010070 PubMed
  • Swamy, M.K., Akhtar, M.J., Simon, U.R.; Anti Microbial Activity of Six Essential Oils Against Human Pathogens and Their Mode of Action (an updated review); Evidenced Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006; 2016:3012462
  • Varga A., Acimo, M., Starkouic J., Cvetkovic, M.; Anti microbial properties of essential oils from wild and cultivated carrot seed; (Conference Paper) 2016: Research Gate
  • Wang, H., Song., L.,  Ju, W.,  Wang, X., Dong, L., Zhang, Y., Ya, P., Yang, C., Li, F. (2017) The acute airway inflammation induced by PM2.5 exposure and the treatment of essential oils in Balb/c mice. Scientific Reports. 7:44256.
  • Wei, L.S., Wee, W., Chemical composition and anti microbial activity of citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals; Iran Journal of Microbiology 2013 Jun: 5(2): p 147-152; PubMed PMC 3696851


  • Bowles, J. E. (2000) The Basic Chemistry of Aromatherapeutic Essential Oils: E. J Bowles, Sidney, Australia
  • Clarke, S. (2002) Essential Chemistry for Safe Aromatherapy: Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh
  • Godfrey, H. D. (2019) Essential Oils for the Whole Body: The dynamics of topical application: Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont USA
  • Svoboda, K. P., Svoboda, T. G. (2000) Secretory Structures of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants: A review and atlas of micrographs: Microscopix Publications, Powys UK
  • Tisserand, R., Young, R. (2014) Essential Oil Safety: A guide for Health Care Professionals 2nd ed: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, Edinburgh
  • Valnet, Dr. J. (1980) The Practice of Aromatherapy: C.W. Daniel Co. Ltd., Saffron Walden UK
  • Vasey, C. (2018) Natural Antibiotics and Antivirals: 18 Infection-Fighting Herbs and Essential Oils: Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont USA
  • Williams, D. G. Williams (2006) The Chemistry of Essential Oils: an introduction for aromatherapists, beauticians, retailers, and students: Micelle Press, Dorset England